The unmanned drone is the abbreviation of unmanned aircraft, which is an unmanned aircraft using radio remote control equipment and self-provided program control devices. Including unmanned helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft, multi-rotor aircraft, unmanned airships, and unmanned paragliders. In a broad sense, it also includes near-space vehicles, such as stratospheric airships, high-altitude balloons, solar unmanned drones, etc. From a certain point of view, unmanned drones can complete complex aerial flight tasks and various load tasks under unmanned conditions, and can be regarded as "air robots".
1. The unmanned drone flight control system is more accurate and clearer
The flight control subsystem is the core system for the unmanned drone to complete the entire flight process of take-off, aerial flight, mission execution and returns to the field. The flight control of the unmanned drone is equivalent to the role of the driver in the manned drone. We think it is one of the core technologies of the unmanned drone. The flight control generally includes three parts: sensor, onboard computer and servo actuation equipment. The functions realized mainly include unmanned drone attitude stabilization and control, unmanned drone mission equipment management and emergency control.
2. The navigation system is the "eye" of the unmanned drone, and the combination of multiple technologies is the future direction
The navigation system provides the position, speed and flight attitude of the reference coordinate system to the unmanned drone, and guides the unmanned drone to fly according to the specified route, which is equivalent to the navigator in the man-machine system. Good drone onboard navigation systems are mainly divided into two types: non-autonomous (GPS, etc.) and autonomous (inertial guidance), but they have the disadvantages of being susceptible to interference and increasing error accumulation, and the future development of unmanned drones requires obstacle avoidance, material or weapon delivery, automatic approach and landing and other functions require high precision, high reliability, and high anti-interference performance. Therefore, the combination of multiple navigation technologies "inertial + multi-sensor + GPS + photoelectric navigation system" will be the direction of future development.
3. The data link transmission system is an important technical component of unmanned drone
The data link is the "kite line", transitioning from a stand-alone proprietary system to the Global Information Grid (GIG). The data link transmission system is responsible for completing the remote control, telemetry, tracking and positioning and sensor transmission of the unmanned drone. The uplink data link realizes the telemetry and data transmission functions for the unmanned drone remote control and the downlink data link. Most ordinary unmanned drones like enterprise drones use custom line-of-sight data links, while unmanned drones at medium and high altitudes and long-duration flight use line-of-sight and beyond-line-of-sight satellite communication data links.
The development of modern data link technology promotes the development of unmanned drone data links in the direction of high speed, broadband, confidentiality and anti-interference, and the practical ability of unmanned drones will become stronger and stronger. Looking ahead, with the increasing sophistication of airborne sensors, positioning and the complexity of performing tasks, there are strong requirements for data link loans. In the future, with the rapid development of airborne high-speed processors, it is expected that in a few years The transmission rate of the existing radio frequency data link will be doubled, and laser communication may also appear in the field of low all-weather requirements in the future.
From the perspective of themarket communication network development strategy formulated by the United States, the data link system is transitioning from the initial IP-based transmission, multi-machine interconnection network to satellite network transmission, and the final complete Global Information Grid (GIG) configuration transition. Authorized users provide seamless global information resource interaction capabilities, supporting both fixed and mobile users.